The following is a compilation of references from the Georef databases, personal experience, graduate theses, and reference lists taken from publications about Mount Baker. Most papers deal with volcanology and stratigraphy. There are some references to glaciation of Mount Baker. This list includes some abstracts and open-file reports that may be preliminary to later refereed publications. Please provide updates here: firstname.lastname@example.org
Sas, M., 2015, High-Mg Andesites from the Northern Cascade Arc: Using Mineral Chemistry to Distinguish Between Hypotheses for Petrogenesis (2015). WWU Masters Thesis Collection. Paper 437. 110 pages
Full thesis: http://cedar.wwu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1442&context=wwuet Abstract excerpt- To better understand the role of slab melt in north Cascades magmas, this study focused on petrogenesis of high-Mg lavas from the two northernmost active volcanoes in Washington, Mount Baker and Glacier Peak... Results indicate that in addition to slab-derived fluids, slab-derived melts also have an important role in the production of high-Mg in the north Cascade arc.
Tucker, D., Scott, K., Grossman, E.E. and Linneman, S., 2014, Mount Baker lahars and debris flows, ancient, modern and future in Dashtgard, S. and Ward, B., eds., Trials and Tribulations of Lie on an Active Fault Zone: Field Trips in and around Vancouver, Canada: GSA Field Guide 38, p.33-52.
Description of Holocene lahar and debris flow history in the Middle Fork Nooksack drainage, including the Middle Fork Nooksack lahar, Ridley Creek lahar, 1927 Deming Glacier outburst flood, and the spring 2013 landslide-induced debris flows. 14C dates for older flows.
Gross, J., 2012, Felsic magmas from Mt. Baker in the northern Cascade arc : origin and role in andesite production:Western Washington University, Masters thesis, Bellingham. 110 pages, color illustrations
ABSTRACT: Dacitic magmas in volcanic arcs play a critical role in the growth and development of felsic continental crust through mixing to form andesite, or to a lesser extent, by directly adding new crustal material through fractionation of mantle derived basalts. Though dacitic erupted lavas are scarce on Mt. Baker, this study discusses their importance in subsurface processes such as mixing with more mafic magmas, and their potential to add directly to the volume of continental crust. A comprehensive data set (including major, trace, and rare earth element abundances, as well as petrography and mineral chemistry) reveals that the most Sirich, Mg-poor dacitic compositions analyzed in this study (dacite of Mazama Lake) can be modeled as liquids derived by crystal fractionation from Mt. Baker high-Mg andesites. These Si-rich compositions are in turn back-mixed with mafic magmas to produce more Sipoor dacites (dacite of Cougar Divide) and andesites (andesite of Mazama Lake). The origin of one enigmatic hornblende-bearing dacite unit (dacite of Nooksack Falls) is unconstrained. None of the dacitic units have geochemical signatures that suggest an origin by melting of a garnet-bearing source such as the subducting slab or the lower crust. The dacite of Mazama Lake (plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides) represents a near end-member fractionated composition with only minor contamination from xenocrystic material. Mineral populations commonly lack disequilibrium textures, and exhibit normal zoning. Plagioclase and pyroxene chemistry suggests the majority of the crystal population is original to the dacite of Mazama Lake. Sparse resorbed olivine grains (<1% total crystal population) and weak reverse zoning in some plagioclase and pyroxene grains indicates a minor addition of xenocrystic material. The majority of the Mazama Lake compositions can be reproduced after 44% fractionation (55% remaining liquid) of a high-Mg andesite (the andesite of Glacier Creek), with fractionating phases of 69% plagioclase, 16% orthopyroxene, 11% clinopyroxene, 3% ilmenite, and 1% apatite. Excellent fits of major elements, most trace elements are provided by this model. The dacite of Cougar Divide (plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides, olivine) and the andesite of Mazama Lake (plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides, olivine) are more Si-poor, and exhibit evidence for magma mixing. The Cougar Divide unit exhibits mingling textures in hand sample and both Si-poor units exhibit mixing textures in thin section, such as calcic normal and sodic reverse zoned plagioclase populations and pyroxene grains with abrupt Mg-rich rims. This suggests that their primary geochemical characteristics come from mixing between more mafic and more felsic magmas. The dacite of Mazama Lake can be used to reasonably reproduce compositions observed in the mixed magmas. Mixing between the high-Mg andesite of Glacier Creek and dacite of Mazama Lake can reproduce an average major and trace element composition from the Cougar Divide unit in mixing proportions of ~60% andesite and ~40% dacite. Major and trace element compositions from the andesite of Mazama Lake can be reproduced by mixing ~30% the high-Mg basaltic andesite Tarn Plateau (a less fractionated parent magma of the andesite of Glacier Creek) and ~70% Mazama Lake dacite. The dacite of Nooksack Falls (plagioclase, hornblende, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides) appears to represent a near-endmember composition, but cannot be reproduced by fractional crystallization of any known parental composition at Mt. Baker. A distinct set of minerals with compositions expected from a basaltic source (such as calcic plagioclase grains, and Mg-rich clinopyroxene grains with high Cr concentrations) suggests the dacite of Nooksack Falls acquired some xenocrystic material. However, removal of this contamination does not permit a fractionation origin from known mafic compositions. One possibility is that the dacite of Nooksack Falls was derived from more mafic magmas that are not currently observed or erupted. These dacites are unlikely to be crustal melts given their high H2O contents. Ultimately, these hypotheses cannot be reconciled without isotopic analysis. The role of dacitic magmas at Mt. Baker is clear; (1) they have the potential to directly contribute to the continental crust through fractionation, and (2) they have a role in mixing, in which andesitic compositions (a common composition at arcs worldwide) are formed.
Moore, N. and DeBari, S., 2012, Mafic magmas from Mount Baker in the northern Cascade arc, Washington: probes into mantle and crustal processes: Contributions in Mineralogy and Petrology v. 163, p. 521–546. DOI 10.1007/s00410-011-0686-4
The chemical and petrologic characteristics of the five most mafic lava units from the Mount Baker volcanic field in the reveal a diversity of near-primitive compositions requiring distinct mantle sources and varying subducting slab influence to explain their petrogenesis. Three distinct endmember magma types are represented that cannot be related by fractional crystallization or other crustal processes. These include LKOT-like, calcalkaline, and high-Mg basaltic andesite.
Baggerman, T. and DeBari, S., 2011, The generation of a diverse suite of Late Pleistocene and Holocene basalt through dacite lavas from the northern Cascade arc at Mount Baker, Washington: Contributions in Mineralogy and Petrology. v.161, p.75–99 DOI 10.1007/s00410-010-0522-2
Uses three lavas to model the generation of andesites at Mount Baker.
Crider, J., Frank, D., Malone, S., Werner, C. and Caplan-Auerbach, J., 2011, Magma at depth: a retrospective analysis of the 1975 unrest at Mount Baker, Washington, USA: Bulletin of Volcanology Volume 73, Number 2, 175-189, DOI: 10.1007/s00445-010-0441-0
The authors infer that the 'failed eruption' of 1975 resulted from magmatic activity beneath the volcano: either the emplacement of magma at mid-crustal levels, or opening of a conduit to a deep existing source of magmatic volatiles.
Moore, N. and DeBari, S., 2011, Mafic magmas from Mount Baker in the northern Cascade arc, Washington: probes into mantle and crustal processes. Contrib Mineral Petrol DOI 10.1007/s00410-011-0686-4 (published online 13 Sept. 2011)
Chemical and petrologic characteristics of five mafic lavas require distinct mantle sources and varying subducting slab influence to explain their petrogenesis.
Nichols, M., Malone, S., Moran, S.C., Thelen, W.A. and Vidale, J., 2011, Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon volcanoes: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 200 n. 3-4, p. 116-128
31 out of 60 long-period earthquakes recorded beneath Cascade volcanoes were at Baker. These events are inferred to represent the movement of magma and/or magmatic fluids within the mid-to-lower crust (10–50 km)... characterized by mostly low-frequency energy emergent arrivals and long-duration codas. Event locations extend from directly below the summit to ~10 km to the south and southeast of the edifice, with depths ranging from 15 to 30 km (one DLP is located at 42 km depth).
Park, M., 2011, Glacial and geothermal dynamics in Sherman Crater, Mount Baker, Washington: Western Washington University, Bellingham. 90 pages, color maps and illustrations.
Sherman Crater glacial melt is apparently affected by volcanic heat flux. Ground-penetrating radar indicates crater ice thickness is approximately 71 m maximum Available online: http://content.wwu.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/theses/id/442/rec/14
Hodge, B. and Crider, J., 2010, Investigating mechanisms of edifice deflation, 1981–2007, at Mount Baker volcano, Washington, United States: Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 115, B04401. doi:10.1029/2009JB006730
Campaign GPS study demonstrates edifice deflation since 1981, and a hypothesis of a cooling magmatic intrusion. Publication based on Hodge's Masters thesis at WWU.
Ingebritsen, S. and Mariner, R., 2010, Hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range, northwestern United States: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research v. 196 p. 208–218
Gives discharge data for the entire range. Discusses discharge at Baker (Sherman Crater, Baker Hot springs), but not very specific. Abstract online, search paper title.
Tucker, D. and Scott, K., 2009, Structures and facies associated with the flow of subaerial basaltic lava into a deep freshwater lake: The Sulphur Creek lava flow, North Cascades, Washington; Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v.185 p. 311–322 doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.11.028
Holocene basalt lava that flowed into Glacial Lake Baker,and resultant structures. In special issue on volcano-ice interactions
Werner, C., Evans, W., Poland, M., Tucker, D. and Doukas, M., 2009, Long-Term Changes in Quiescent Degassing at Mount Baker Volcano, Washington, USA ; Evidence for a Stalled Intrusion in 1975 and Connection to a Deep Magma Source: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research vol 186 n. 3-4 pp. 379-386 doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.07.006
fumarole chemistry used to analyze 1975 'thermal reawakening' . Abstract available on line via Science Direct
Baggerman, T., 2008, The origin of a diverse suite of late Pleistocene andesitic to dacitic lavas from the northern Cascade Arc at Mt. Baker, Washington Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, July 2008, Vol. 72, Issue 12S, pp.A43
Intermediate magma evolution from mafic lavas at Mount Baker
Crider, J., Hill-Johnsen, K. and Williams-Jones, G., 2008, Thirty-year gravity change at Mount Baker volcano, Washington, USA: extracting the signal from under the ice; Geophysical Research Letters 35: L20304-8. doi:10.1029/2008GL034921
Gravimetry study, 2005-6.
Hodge, B., 2008, Characterizing surface deformation from 1981 to 2007 on Mount Baker Volcano, Washington (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 127 p. color maps; + 1 CD-ROM
Campaign GPS survey of deformation at Mount Baker volcano [WWU MS thesis]
Baggerman, T. and DeBari, S., 2007, Petrology and geochemistry of Late Pleistocene andesite lava flows from Mt. Baker, Washington: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4., p. 78
First REE study of Baker lavas; andesite modeling
Caplan-Auerbach, J., Park, M. and Hadley, S., 2007, Preliminary Results From a Temporary Seismic Network at Mt. Baker, Washington: Eos Trans. AGU, 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V11C-0757
First results from Baker seismometer network since 1975-6 activity
Feeney, D. and Linneman, S., 2007, Timing and nature of post-collapse sedimentation in Kulshan caldera, North Cascades, Washington: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4., p. 66
Caldera lake sedimentation
Hill, K., 2007, Assessing microgravity changes at Mt. Baker, Washington, 1975-2006 (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 127 p.
Detailed report on gravity studies, 2005-6
Hill, K., Crider, J. and Williams-Jones, G., 2007, Gravity increase observed at Mount Baker volcano, 1975-2006: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4., p. 65
Magmatic activity implicated in recent gravity changes
Hodge, B. and Crider, J., 2007, Edifice contraction from 1981 to 2006 of Mount Baker, Washington: Results from campaign GPS resurvey of EDM network: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 65
Recent shortening across the flanks of the volcano
Hodge, B. and Crider, J., 2007, Characterizing magmatic activity at Mount Baker, Washington with inversion of slope distance data: Eos Trans. AGU, 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V11C-743
Results from a geodetic GPS survey of the volcano edifice
Juday, J., 2007, A contemporary view of 1975-1976 elevated activity levels at the Mount Baker complex, Washington, and current community awareness of volcano hazards (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 219 p.
Review of response to 1975-6 activity; 2005-6 surveys of locals on hazards
Juday, J., 2007, Revisiting the 1975 phreatic activity and public perception of volcanic hazards: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p65
Phreatic activity in 1975; community perceptions of risk
Lewis, D., Scott, K. and Tucker, D., 2007, Debris Avalanches in Rainbow Creek at Mount Baker, Washington- dating and matrix analysis: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 66.
Further report on 19th and 20th C debris avalanche in Rainbow Creek
Mullen, E. and McCallum, I.S., 2007, Petrology of Mount Baker: variable redox states of post-Kulshan caldera andesites: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 66
Petrology of Table Mountain and Coleman Pinnacle andesite
Poland, M., Crider, J. and Williams-Jones, G., 2007, Investigating the mechanism behind persistent degassing and thermal unrest at arc volcanoes: an example from Mount Baker, Washington: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 65
Proposing Baker as a model of low-level unrest
Tucker, D., Scott, K. and Lewis, D., 2007, Field guide to Mount Baker volcanic deposits in the Baker River valley: Nineteenth century lahars, tephras, debris avalanches, and early Holocene subaqueous lava, in Stelling, P., and Tucker, D.S., eds., Floods, Faults, and Fire: Geological Field Trips in Washington State and Southwest British Columbia: Geological Society of America Field Guide 9, p. 83-98, doi: 10.1130/2007.fl d009(04).
Field trip to distal Baker stratigraphy on lower east flank
Tucker, D., Hildreth, W., Ullrich, T. and Friedman, R., 2007, Geology and complex collapse mechanisms of the 3.72 Ma Hannegan caldera, North Cascades, Washington, USA: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 119 p. 329-342.
Stratigraphy of Hannegan volcanics Äpart of the magmatic focus migration centered at Baker;
Tucker, D., Scott, K., Foit, Jr., F. and Mierendorf, R., 2007, Age, distribution, and composition of Holocene tephras from Mount Baker, Cascade arc, Washington, USA: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 66.
Refined ages and character of Baker tephras, including 19th C set YP
Warren, S. and Watters, R., 2007, Influence of geologic structure and alteration strength on edifice failure mode at Mount Baker, Washington: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 66
Rock strength modeling at Sherman Crater
Werner, C., Evans, W., McGee, K., Doukas, M., Tucker, D., Bergfeld, D., Poland, M. and Crider, J., 2007, Quiescent degassing of Mount Baker volcano, Washington, USA: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 65.
Magmatic gas present, consistent chemistry; no evidence for SO2 emissions
Hill, K., Crider, J. and Williams-Jones, G., 2006, Significant gravity change detected at Mount Baker, Washington, 1975-2005: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 38, n. 5, p. 76
Preliminary report of gravitational decrease at Sherman Crater
Hill, K., Crider, J. and Williams-Jones, G., 2006, Assessing gravity changes at Mt. Baker, Washington, 1975-2006, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 87(52), fall meeting supplement, abstract V44A-03.
More information on gravity changes.
Lewis, D., Scott, K. and Tucker, D., 2006, Long-Runout Debris Avalanche in Rainbow Creek at Mount Baker, Washington: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 38, no. 5, p. 75.
10.5 km non-eruptive avalanche on the east flank of Mount Baker
Scott, K. and Tucker, D., 2006, Eruptive Chronology of Mount Baker Revealed by Lacustrine Facies of Glacial Lake Baker: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 38, no. 5, p. 75.
Stratigraphy preserved in a large glacial lake in the Baker River valley; earliest description of Glacial Lake Baker
Towns, J., Green, N., Powell, J. and Garcia, B., 2006, Complex Mafic Andesite Evolution at Mount Baker Volcano, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 87(52), Fall Meet. Supplemnent, Abstract V23C-0635, vol.56, no.10, pp.679-685
Geochemistry of Sulphur Creek lava flow
Tucker, D., 2006, Geologic map of the Pliocene Hannegan caldera, North Cascades, Washington: Geological Society of America Digital map and Chart Series 3 (accompanying text), 3 p., doi: 10.1130/2006.DMCH003.TXT
Geologic map of Hannegan caldera, at the NE end of the magmatic progression that is currently focused at Mount Baker
Tucker, D. and Scott, K., 2006, A Magmatic Component in 19th Century Mount Baker Eruptions?: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 38, no. 5, p. 75.
Description of very young ash from Sherman Crater eruptive period. Since shown not to be volcanic ash
Warren, S., Watters, R. and Tucker, D., 2006, Future Edifice Collapse as a Result of Active Hydrothermal Alteration and Geologic Structure at Mt. Baker, Washington: Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V53A-1746.
Measurement of structure and rock strength at Sherman Crater
Green, N. and Sinha, A.K., 2005, Consequences of varied slab age and thermal structure on enrichment processes in the sub-arc mantle of the northern Cascadia subduction system:Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 140, p. 107-132
Mullen, E. and McCallum, I.S., 2005, Coexisting pseudobrookite—ilmenite—magnetite solid solutions in highly oxidized hornblende andesite of the Coleman Pinnacle flow, Mt. Baker, WA. EOS Transactions AGU, 86(52), Fall Meeting Suppl., Abstract V13B-0544.
Geochemistry of pre-Baker andesite lava
Hildreth, W., Lanphere, M., Champion, D.E. and Fierstein, J., 2004, Rhyodacites of Kulshan caldera, North Cascades of Washington: postcaldera lavas that span the Jaramillo: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 130, p. 227-264.
High quality paleomagnetic and radiometric dating study study; petrology of domes
Scott, K. and Tucker, D., 2004, Natural dams and floods of legend at Mount Baker Volcano, North Cascades???evidence from volcanic stratigraphy of the Sherman Crater eruptive period (AD 1843 to present): Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, n. 5, p. 377.
Tephra set YP; 19th C Skagit River floods not caused by eruptions
Tepper, J. and Hildreth, W., 2004, The plutonic-volcanic connection in the Cascade arc: insights from the Mount Baker- Chilliwack area, Washington: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 223
Apparent NE-ward extension of the Hannegan-Baker magmatic focus
Tucker, D., 2004, Geology and eruptive history of Hannegan caldera, North Cascades, Washington (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 125 p.
Thesis, precursor to Tucker, 2006 and Tucker et al., 2007
Tucker, D. and Scott, K., 2004, Boulder Creek assemblage, Mount Baker, Washington: a record of the latest cone building eruptions: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 4, p. 85.
Stratigraphy of clastic flank deposits of the Carmelo Crater eruptive period.
Hildreth, W., Fierstein, J. and Lanphere, M., 2003, Eruptive history and geochronology of the Mount Baker volcanic field, Washington: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 115, p. 729-764.
Comprehensive Baker geologic study; first to describe the entire volcanic field; voluminous geochemistry database; high-quality radiometric ages
Scott, K. and Tucker, D., 2003, The Sherman Crater eruptive period at Mount Baker, North Cascades???A.D. 1843 to present???implications for reservoirs at the base of the volcano: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 35, no. 6, p. 132-16.
Description of events associated with 19th C eruptions; updated volcanic hazard assessment
Scott, K., Tucker, D. and McGeehin, J., 2003, Holocene History of Mount Baker volcano, North Cascades: XVI INQUA Congress Program with Abstracts, vol. 9, p. 51.
Outline of eruptive periods with stratigraphic units
Scott, K., Tucker, D. and McGeehin, J., 2003, Island of Fire in a Sea of Ice???The Growth of Mount Baker volcano and the Fraser Glaciation in the North Cascades: XVI INQUA Congress Program with Abstracts, p. 51.
Definition and description of the Carmelo Crater eruptive period
Symonds, R.B., Janik, C.J., Evans, W., Ritchie, B.E., Counce, D., Poreda, R.J. and Iven, M., 2003, Scrubbing masks magmatic degassing during repose at Cascade Range and Aleutian Arc volcanoes: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-file report 03-435, 22 p.
Fumarole geochemistry and masking processes
Symonds, R.B., Poreda, R.J., Evans, W., Janik, C.J. and Ritchie, B.E., 2003, Mantle and crustal sources of carbon, nitrogen, and noble gases in Cascade Range and Aleutian Arc volcanic gases: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-file report 03-426, 26 p.
Fumarole geochemistry and processes
Tabor, R., Haugerud, R., Hildreth, W. and Brown, E.H., 2003, Geologic map of the Mount Baker 30 X 60 minute quadrangle, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Map I-2660, scale 1:100,000, 2 sheets.
Incorporates essentials of Hildreth's Baker volcanic field mapping (Hildreth et al., 2003)
Kovanen, D., Easterbrook, D. and Thomas, P., 2001, Holocene eruptive history of Mount Baker, Washington: Canadian Journal of Earth Science, v. 38, p. 1355-1366.
Brief description of some post-edifice flank deposits
McGee, K., Doukas, M. and Gerlach, T.M., 2001, Quiescent hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide degassing from Mount Baker, Washington: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 28, p. 4479-4482.
Sherman crater vents 5.5 tons H2S and 187tons CO2 /day; gas scrubbing masks magmatic SO2?
Scott, K., Macias, J., Naranjo, J.A., Rodriguez, S. and McGeehin, J., 2001, Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains: mobility, hazard assessment, and mitigation strategies: US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1630.
Includes descriptions and ages of a number of Baker tephras (SP, SC, BA, OP)
Scott, K., Hildreth, W. and Gardner, C., 2000, Mount Baker -- Living With An Active Volcano: USGS Fact Sheet 059-00
Volcano hazards associated with Mount Baker
Kovanen, D. and Easterbrook, D., 1999, Holocene tephras and lahars from Mt. Baker, Washington: Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America, vol.31, no.6, pp.71
Preliminary to Kovanen and others, 2001
Mierendorf, R., 1999, Precontact use of tundra zones of the Northern Cascades Range of Washington and British Columbia: Archaeology in Washington, v. 7, p. 3-23.
The 5740 BP BA tephra as archaeological dating tool.
Stinton, A., 1999, Sedimentology of the Middle Fork Mudflow, Western Washington, USA: Unpublished undergraduate thesis, University of Plymouth, United Kingdom, 53 p.
Grain size analysis of the largest Baker lahar
Pringle, P. and Hickson, C., 1998, Cascade volcanoes--Processes and hazards; A five day field trip--Mount Baker to Mount St. Helens, September 25-30, 1998: International Association of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 8th Congress, 22 p. accessed May 11, 2013 at http://www.dnr.wa.gov/Publications/ger_field_trip_cascades_volcanoes.pdf
A short portion of this field trip visits pre-Baker andesite lava of Table Mountain at Heather Meadows.
Thomas, P., 1997, Late Quaternary glaciation and volcanism on the south flank of Mount Baker, Washington: (M.S. thesis); Bellingham, Western Washington University, 98 p.
Early description of some Baker tephras
Easterbrook, D. and Kovanen, D., 1996, Far reaching mid-Holocene lahar from Mt. Baker in the Nooksack Valley of the North Cascades, Washington: Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society of America, vol.28, no.5, pp.64, Apr 1996
Middle Fork Nooksack lahar
Hildreth, W., 1996, Kulshan Caldera: a Quaternary subglacial caldera in the North Cascades, Washington: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 108, p. 786-793.
Original and classic description of the 1.15 Ma caldera
Gardner, C., Scott, K., Miller, C.D., Myers, B., Heiken, G., Hildreth, W. and Pringle, P., 1995, Potential Volcanic Hazards from Future Activity at Mount Baker, Washington: USGS Open-File Report 95-498
Green, N. and Pearce, T.H., 1994, Plagioclase resorption textures associated with basalt-basaltic andesite mixing, Sulphur Creek Lava, Mount Baker Volcano, Washington: Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America, v.26, n.7, pp.292.
Petrology of Sulphur Creek lava
Cary, C.M., Thompson, J.M. and Pringle, P., 1992, Holocene lahar deposits from Mount Baker volcano in Glacier Creek, North Cascades, Washington: Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society of America, vol.24, no.5, pp.13.
The only report of debris flows in a northern drainage of Mount Baker
Cameron, V., 1989, The late Quaternary geomorphic history of the Sumas valley: (M.A. thesis): Simon Fraser University, 154 p.
Suggestion that mid-Holocene lahars traveled into Fraser River
Green, N., 1988, Basalt-basaltic andesite mixing at Mount Baker volcano, Washington: I. Estimation of mixing conditions: Journal of volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 34, p. 251-265.
Petrology of Sulphur Creek lava and magma chamber processes
Brown, E.H. and others, 1., 1987, Geologic Map of the Northwest Cascades, Washington: Geological Society of America Map and Chart Series MC-61
Generalized map showing approximate extent of Mount Baker volcanic field
Westgate, J., Easterbrook, D., Naeser, N.D. and Carson, R., 1987, Lake Tapps tephra: An early Pleistocene stratigraphic marker in the Puget Lowland, Washington: Quaternary Research, v. 28, p. 340-355.
Age of distal ash erupted during collapse of Kulshan caldera
Ziegler, C.B., 1986, Structure and petrology of the Swift Creek area, western North Cascades, Washington (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 191 p.
Description of a few distal andesitic outlier lava flows; geologic map of east flank of Baker
Heiken, G. and Wohletz, K., 1985, Volcanic Ash. University of California Press. 246 p.
Includes description of lithic ash vented during the 1976 phreatic eruptions
Frank, D., 1983, Origin, distribution, and rapid removal of hydrothermally formed clay at Mount Baker, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1022-E, 31 p.
Alteration in Sherman Crater and hazard from slope instability
Easterbrook, D., Briggs, N.D., Westgate, J. and Gorton, M.P., 1981, Age of the Salmon Springs glaciation in Washington: Geology, v. 9, p. 87-93.
First account of Lake Tapps tephra, later associated with Kulshan caldera
Friedman, J.D. and Frank, D., 1980, Infrared surveys, radiant flux, and total heat discharge at Mount Baker volcano, Washington, between 1970 and 1975: US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1022-D. 33 pages
A comparison of 1970-73 and 1975 thermal activity using aerial infrared surveys, ground temps, and a 2-point differential geothermal-flux model based on heat balance of the ground surface.
James, E.W., 1980, Geology and petrology of the Lake Ann stock and associated rocks (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 57 p.
Study of a 2.5 Ma pluton on the east flank of the Mt Baker volcanic field
Krimmel, R.M. and Frank, D., 1980, Aerial observations of Mount Baker, Washington; 1976-1979 update: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.61, no.6, pp.69, 05 Feb 1980.
Airborne survey of Sherman Crater, Boulder Glacier, Dorr Fumarole Field, heat flow, ejecta
Shafer, D.C., 1980, Evaluation and implications of the thermal activity of Mount Baker,Washington from aerial photographs and infrared images: Proceedings of the Oregon Academy of Science, vol.16, pp.15, 1980
Aerial and infrared photographic analysis of recent thermal activity at Sherman Crater.
Swan, V.L., 1980, The petrogenesis of the Mount Baker volcanics, Washington (Ph.D. thesis): Pullman, Washington State University, 630 p.
Geochem and petrology, though some data suspect
Westgate, J., Easterbrook, D., Naeser, N.D. and Carson, R., 1980, Lake Tapps tephra: An early Pleistocene stratigraphic marker in the Puget Lowland, Washington. Quaternary Research, v. 28, p. 340-355
First description of the tephra that would later be linked to eruption at the Kulshan caldera (Hildreth, 1996).
James, E.W., 1979, Emplacement of the Lake Ann Stock, North Cascades Range, Washington: Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society of America, vol.11, no.3, p. 86.
Contact aureoles of a 2.5 Ma pluton on the east flank of the Mount Baker volcanic field
Malone, S., 1979, Gravity changes accompanying increased heat emission at Mount Baker, Washington: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.6, no.3-4, pp.241-256,
Original gravitational study at Sherman Crater during 1975 phreatic eruptions
Shafer, D.C., 1979, Evaluation and implications of the thermal activity of Mt. Baker, Washington from aerial photographs and infrared images. Senior Thesis, Oregon State University. 26 pages plus photocopied older documents.
An OSU senior thesis that measured westward movement of thermal areas in Sherman Crater. PDF available here. Includes scanned copy of Coombs GSABulletin 1939, the earliest Baker scientific paper.
Frank, D. and Krimmel, R.M., 1978, Volcanic effects on snow and ice on Mount Baker, Washington: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Report: P 1100, pp.213.
Atmospheric precipitation; avalanches; fumaroles; geomorphology
Hyde, J. and Crandell, D., 1978, Post-glacial volcanic deposits at Mount Baker, Washington, and potential hazards from future eruptions: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1022-C. 1978
The earliest in-depth study of Baker stratigraphy and volcanic hazards
Kiver, E.P., 1978, Mount Baker's changing fumaroles: The Ore Bin, vol.40, no.8, pp.133-145
Fumaroles at Sherman Crater
Kiver, E.P., 1978, Geothermal ice caves and fumaroles, Mount Baker Volcano, 1974-77: Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America, vol.10, no.3, pp.112.
Ice caves, fumaroles associated with increased activity, 1974-1977
Likarish, D.M., 1978, A magnetic profile of a Cascade volcano, Mount Baker, Washington (Masters thesis): Seattle, University of Washington, 59 p.
Geomagnetic survey of Mount Baker region
Babcock, J.W. and Wilcox, R.E., 1977, Results of petrographic examination of samples, in Frank, D., Meier, M.F., and Swanson, D.A., 1977, Assessment of increased thermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington, March 1975-March 1976, p. 25
Non-magmatic ejecta from Sherman Crater fumaroles.
Bortleson, G.C., Wilson, R.T. and Foxworthy, B.L., 1977, Water-quality effects on Baker Lake of recent volcanic activity at Mount Baker, Washington: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Report: P 1022-B, 30 pp.
Baker Lake geochemistry and hydrology; environmental geology; geologic hazards;
Frank, D. and Krimmel, R.M., 1977, Mount Baker thermal activity continues; visual observations, April 1976 to August 1977: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v 59, n 4, pp.236, Apr 1978
Further reports of increased fumarolic activity following 1975 phreatic eruptions
Frank, D., Meier, M.F. and Swanson, D., 1977, Assessment of increased thermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington, March 1975- March 1976: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1022-A, 31 p.
Infrared study of proliferating fumaroles during and after 1975 activity
Malone, S., 1977, Geophysical monitoring of Mount Baker; progress report: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.58, no.3, p.170, Mar 1977
Gravity, seismic, and gravimetric surveys at Baker after onset of 1975 thermal increase
McKeever, D., 1977, Volcanology and geochemistry of the south flank of Mount Baker, Cascade Range, Washington (Masters thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 126 p.
Early geochemical study of Black Buttes-age lavas at Baker Pass and Park Butte
Rohay, A.C. and Malone, S., 1977, Seismic velocity anomalies in the vicinity of Mount Baker, Washington: Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society of America, vol.9, no.4, pp.490.
Seismology and velocity structure at Mount Baker
Bortleson, G.C. and Wilson, R.T., 1976, Table of data on water quality of Baker Lake near Mount Baker, Washington: Open-File Report - U. S. Geological Survey, Report: OF 76-0195, 11 pp.
Baker Lake geochemistry and hydrology; environmental geology; geologic hazards
Easterbrook, D., 1976, Pleistocene and Recent volcanic activity of Mount Baker, Washington: Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society of America, vol.8, no.6, pp.849.
Early report on Baker volcanic rocks and 1975 activity
Eichelberger, J., Heiken, G., Widdicombe, R., Keady, C.J. and Wright, D., 1976, Baker fumarole activity: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.87.
Composition of phreatic fragments erupted at Sherman Crater, 1975
Eichelberger, J., Heiken, G., Widdicombe, R., Wright, D., Keady, C.J. and Cobb, D.D., 1976, New fumarolic activity on Mount. Baker; observations during April through July, 1975: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.1, no.1, pp.35-53.
The 1975 activity, with aerial photography, geochemistry
Frank, D. and Post, A., 1976, Documentation of thermal changes by photographs of snow and ice features at Mount Baker, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.87.
Photo report on 1975 activity
Frank, D. and Post, A., 1976, Hydrothermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Report: P 1000, pp.170-171
Hydrothermal alteration at Sherman crater, and attendant hazard
Fretwell, M.O., 1976, Water quality sampling and analysis activities related to Mount Baker's recent volcanic activity: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.89.
Hydrogeology, hydrology of Baker Lake and streams draining Sherman Crater
Kiver, E.P. and Steele, W.K., 1976, Volcano monitoring utilizing geothermal ice caves at Mounts Baker and Rainier, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.89
Monitoring carbon dioxide, sulphide and hydrogen emissions
Malone, S., 1976, Seismic and gravity observations on Mount Baker Volcano: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, p. 88.
Gravity, seismic, tilt surveys at Sherman Crater in 1975
Malone, S., 1976, Deformation of Mount Baker volcano by hydrothermal heating: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.12, p.1016, Dec 1976.
Geophysical report on effects of 1975 fumarolic activity
Malone, S. and Frank, D., 1976, Monitoring Mount Baker Volcano: Earthquake Information Bulletin (USGS), vol.8, no.2, pp.21-25
Early report on seismology during the 1975 phreatic eruptions
McLane, J.E., Finkelman, R.B. and Larson, R.R., 1976, Mineralogical examination of particulate matter from the fumaroles of Sherman Crater, Mount Baker, Washington (State): Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.89.
Feldspar; pyroxenes, sulfides from Sherman Crater
McLane, J.E., Finkelman, R.B. and Larson, R.R., 1976, Particulate matter from the fumaroles of Sherman Crater, Mount Baker: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Report: P 1000, pp.171, 1976
Similar to their earlier paper
Nolf, B., 1976, Tilt-bar stations on Mount Baker, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.88.
Geophysical surveys during 1975 activity
Radke, L.F., Hobbs, P.V. and Stith, J.L., 1976, Airborne measurements of gases and aerosols from volcanic vents on Mount Baker: Geophysical Research Letters, vol.3, no.2, pp.93-96.
Aerosol and gas chemistry
Radke, L.F., Hegg, D.A. and Stith, J.L., 1976, An airborne study of the gaseous and particulate emissions from the volcanic vents on Mount Baker, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.88
Airborne aerosols, condensation nuclei from Sherman Crater fumaroles
Rosenfeld, C.L., 1976, Operational aerial surveillance of the Sherman Crater area, Mount Baker, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.87-88.
?? Infrared survey of melting during 1975 activity at Sherman Crater.
Rosenfeld, C.L. and Schliker, H.G., 1976, The significance of increased fumarolic activity at Mount Baker, Washington: The Ore Bin, vol.38, no.2, pp.23-35.
1975 activity report
Sato, M., Malone, S., Moxham, R.M. and McLane, J.E., 1976, Monitoring of fumarolic gas at Sherman Crater, Mount Baker, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.88-89.
Chemical composition of Sherman Crater fumaroles
Sato, M., McLane, J.E., Moxham, R.M. and Malone, S., 1976, Remote monitoring of fumarolic gases, Mount Baker, Washington: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Report: P 1000, pp.171.
Bockheim, J.G. and Ballard, T.M., 1975, Hydrothermal soils of the crater of Mount Baker, Washington: Proceedings - Soil Science Society of America, vol.39, no.5, pp.997-1001.
Sherman Crater altered andesite, clay minerals, cristobalite, talc, sulphur, opaline silicates, zeolites
Crandell, D., 1975, Increased hydrothermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Report: P 975, pp.212
First publication on 1975 activity
Easterbrook, D., 1975, Mount Baker eruptions: Geology, v. 3, p. 679-682
General report on Baker features, including 1975 activity
Eichelberger, J., Keady, C.J. and Wright, D., 1975, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., United States; Report number EGG1183-5058, 33p.
Preliminary report of 1975 activity: aerial photography
Frank, D., Post, A. and Friedman, J.D., 1975, Recurrent geothermally induced debris avalanches on Boulder Glacier, Mount Baker, Washington; Journal of Research, US Geological Survey, v. 3 n. 1, pp. 77-87
Small debris flows down Boulder Glacier from east rim of Sherman Crater
Kiver, E.P., 1975, The first exploration of Mount Baker ice caves: Explorers Journal, vol.53, no.2, pp.84-87; Explorers Club, New York, NY, United States (USA)
Non-technical report of explorations in Sherman Crater steam caves
Kiver, E.P. and Steele, W.K., 1975, Geothermally-produced ice caves, Mount Baker, Washington: Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society of America, vol.7, no.5, Rocky Mountain Section, 28th annual meeting, pp.617-618
Abstract published immediately prior to 1975 phreatic eruptions
Malone, S. and Frank, D., 1975, Increased heat emission from Mount Baker, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.56, no.10, pp.679-685
Early report on 1975 activity
US, G., 1975, US Geological Survey, 1975, Increased volcanic activity of Mount Baker, Washington: Washington Geologic Newsletter, vol.3, no.3, pp.1-5, Jul 1975
Friedman, J.D. and Frank, D., 1974, Thermal activity at Mount Baker Volcano, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.55, no.4, pp.488.
Prescient account- just predates Sherman Crater phreatic eruptions
Bockheim, J.G. and Ballard, T.M., 1973, Hydrothermal soils of the crater of Mount Baker, Washington: Northwest Science, no.46, pp.4.
Sherman Crater altered andesite, clay minerals, cristobalite, talc, sulphur, opaline silicates, zeolites
Stavert, L.W., 1971, A geochemical reconnaissance investigation of Mount Baker andesite (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 60 p.
Geochemistry for selected Baker area lava flows
Easterbrook, D. and Rahm, D., 1970, Landforms of Washington: Union Printing Co., Bellingham, Washington
Mentions Sulphur Creek lava flow and the Schrieber???s Meadow cinder cone
Stearns, H. and Coombs, H., 1959, Quaternary history of the upper Baker Valley, Washington (abstract): Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 70, p. 1788
Interbedded Sulphur Creek lava and lake sediments near Upper Baker dam site
Stearns, H. and Coombs, H., 1958, Report on lava bed area, Baker River project, upper Baker River Plant: Puget Sound Energy Company, Seattle, Washington. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation.
Technical report on drill cores into the Sulphur Creek basalt
Coombs, H., 1939, Mount Baker, a Cascade volcano: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 50, p. 1493-1510
First modern geology of Mount Baker, including petrology
Diller, J.S., 1915, The relief of our Pacific Coast: Science, v. 41, pp. 48-57
Reports of eruptions
Smith, G.O. and Calkins, F.C., 1904, A geological reconaissance across the Cascade Range near the 49th parallel: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 235, 103 p.
Mentions Baker as a volcano
Whitney, J.D., 1889, In Easton, C.F., 1911, Whatcom County Museum of Natural History, Bellingham.
Second-hand report of 1843 activity; source of 1843 eruption date
Davidson, G., 1885, Recent volcanic activity in the United States: Eruptions of Mount Baker: Science, first series, v. 6, no. 138, p. 262.
Accumulation of journalist's reports of eruptions, some spurious
Gibbs, G., 1874, Physical geography of the north-western boundary of the United States (Part 2): Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York, v. 4 (for 1872), p.298-392.
Early accounts of 1843 eruptions, and lahar deposits in Boulder Creek.
Whelan, P. and Bach, A., 2017, Retreating Glaciers, Incipient Soils, Emerging Forests: 100 Years of Landscape Change on Mount Baker, Washington, USA, Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 107:2, 336-349, DOI: 10.1080/24694452.2016.1235480
ABSTRACT: Glacial forelands are harsh environments where incipient pedogenesis provides the basis for vegetation establishment and succession. The Easton Glacier foreland on Mount Baker, Washington, has till deposited during five time intervals over the last 100 years as determined from historic ground and air photos. A soil chronosequence was established on the different age surfaces to assess rates of pedogenesis. As hypothesized, all soil variables, except pH, showed increasing values on progressively older surfaces, with several orders of magnitude increase between the active till and the 100-year surface. Till on ice showed no vegetation cover, low organic matter (0.4 percent), little to no nitrogen content (maximum 0.001 percent), minimal carbon (maximum 0.0083 percent), and a carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 5.9. The 100-year-old surface has continuous vegetation cover, high organic matter (12.6 percent), 0.67 percent nitrogen, and 9.47 percent carbon, and the C/N ratio was at its highest (22.6). Organic matter content started higher than expected in fresh till and gradually increased before vegetation became established, suggesting aeolian deposition of detritus built soil fertility. We estimate that after about sixty years of exposure, till surfaces became fully covered with vegetation and soil organic matter increased by almost 2,800 percent (0.4–12.6 percent). This rapid rate of soil development, given a short growing season, is hypothesized to be related to several edaphic conditions (topographic setting relative to established vegetation, aspect, and andesitic parent material), rather than a normal condition for the Cascades Range as a whole, demonstrating that ongoing climate change is affecting many environmental processes. Key Words: climate change impacts, glacial geomorphology, mountain geography, Pacific Northwest, soil development.
Rosa, K., 2016, One Hundred Years of Vegetation Succession in the Easton Glacial Foreland, Mount Baker, Washington. MS Thesis in Geography, Western Washington University. https://cedar.wwu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1496&context=wwuet
This research describes stages of primary succession in the Easton glacial foreland on Mount Baker, Washington. The Easton foreland is an alpine landscape displaying the processes of primary succession from barren substrate to a developed forest within 1.95 kilometers and over a short geologic period of approximately one hundred years. FULL ABSTRACT: https://cedar.wwu.edu/wwuet/506/
Whelan, P., 2013, Incipient soil development in the recently deglaciated Easton Foreland, Mt. Baker, Washington: Western Washington University, Masters thesis, Bellingham. 134 pages, color maps and illustrations.
Thesis- http://content.wwu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/hcc/id/5831 ASTRACT:Glacial forelands are harsh environments where incipient pedogenesis provides the basis for vegetation establishment and succession. Myriad local factors make discerning major influences on this process difficult. The Easton foreland on Mt. Baker, Washington, was investigated, where till has been deposited over the last one- hundred years. Easton foreland soils were sampled for in situ characteristics and laboratory measures, creating a multi-variable dataset of quantitative and qualitative data. It was hypothesized that soil development, including organic matter content, carbon, nitrogen, the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N),and pH, would show a trend when compared to indicators of development: time, elevation, and successional stage. Furthermore, it was posited that pedogenesis would be categorical, roughly defined by vegetation zones as opposed to incremental, continuous development through the valley. Sites were selected on glacial till, intentionally avoiding confounding fluvial and colluvial influences. To determine the approximate surface age of each sample site, historic and air photos were used as well as existing literature on the recent glacial history of Mt. Baker. It was found that the Easton sequence was best indicated by stages of vegetation succession (Vegetation Zones), with strong correlation to nearly all dependent variables. An intertwined toposequence was also informative as a more continuous and quantitative independent variable to complement Deglaciation Age. The Easton’s glacial history is complicated by the 1950s-80s re-advance, creating a nonlinear spatial timeline and limiting its usefulness as in indicator of development; correlation results were low for the chronosequence. These results reinforce a geoecological viewpoint of categorical landscape development, with the Easton showing facilitative and patchy succession best represented by four Vegetation Zones. This discontinuous facilitation is likely due to seed rain and detritus input from the mature forests atop adjacent Holocene moraines (Railroad Grade and Metcalfe). This Cascadian system was found to be similar to other studied foreland, however there are some differences worth noting and are discussed in Chapters 4 and5. This sequence of soil development showed trends in nearly all dependent variables, with organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, and carbon/nitrogen ratio all increasing with surface age, successional stage, and decreasing with elevation. My study sought to understand a Cascadian foreland and to assess it in the context of other studied glacial forefields in order to better understand the pedogenic processes that shape these unique environments.
Finn, C.M., Deszcz-Pan, M. and Bedrosian, P.A., 2012, Helicopter electromagnetic data map ice thickness at Mount Adams and Mount Baker, Washington, USA: Journal of Glaciology, v.58, no. 212, p. 1133-43.
This paper provides estimates of ice volumes and thicknesses on Mounts Baker and Adams, obtained by making electromagnetic measurements from a heliocopter. ABSTRACT: Ice-thickness measurements critical for flood and mudflow hazard studies are very sparse on Cascade Range (North America) volcanoes. Helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) data collected to detect hydrothermal alteration are used to determine ice thickness over portions of Mount Baker and Mount Adams volcanoes. A laterally continuous inversion method provides good estimates of ice <100m thick over water-saturated and altered regions where the resistivity of the basement is <200 m. For areas with ice overlying fresh, resistive rocks with small resistivity contrasts between ice and rock, ice thickness is not well resolved. The ice thicknesses derived from HEM data are consistent with the previous drillhole data from Mount Adams and radar data from both volcanoes, with mean thicknesses of 57m for Mount Adams and 68m for Mount Baker. The thickest ice on Mount Baker rests on the gentle lower slopes whereas the thickest ice at Mount Adams lies on the flat summit. Ice volume calculations suggest that Mount Baker contains 710,106m^3 of ice in the HEM survey area, with a crude estimate of 1,800,106m^3 for the entire volcano. Ice volume on Mount Adams is 65,106m^3 in parts of the HEM survey area and 20,0106m^3 overall.
Osborn, G., Menounos, B., Ryane, C., Reidel, J., Clague, J., Koch, J., Clark, P.U., Scott, K. and Davis, P.T., 2012, Latest Pleistocene and Holocene glacier fluctuations at Mount Baker, Washington: Quaternary Science Reviews v. 49, p. 33-51
This paper presents stratigraphic and geochronologic data to show that the Little Ice Age glacial advances at Mount Baker were the largest since the end of the Pleistocene, and that glaciers reached maximum Holocene extents in the mid-1800s. A significant conclusion is that glaciers on stratocones do not behave differently from glaciers elsewhere. The paper rebuts the contention in a number of papers authored by D. Kovanen, D.J. Easterbrook, and O. Slaymaker that this is the case, and that Baker glaciers had extensive readvances in the latest Pleistocene and earliest Holocene, including the 'Nooksack Alpine Glaciation'. Abstracts and figures available online: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277379112002296
Pelto, M.S. and Brown, C.E., 2012, Mass balance loss of Mount Baker, Washington glaciers 1990–2010: Hydrological Processes v. 26 p2601-07
Terminus observations on nine principal Mount Baker glaciers, 1984–2009, indicate retreat ranging from 240 to 520m,with a mean of 370m or 14m/year.
Ryane, C., 2009, Holocene glacier fluctuations on Mount Baker, Washington, USA. M.Sc. thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, 121 pp.
MSc Thesis. Use of SC tephra (Schreibers Meadow cinder cone) to constrain the age of glacial moraines. Includes SC tephra glass chemistry (microprobe).
Caplan-Auerbach, J. and Huggel, C., 2007, Seismicity associated with recurrent ice avalanches at Iliamna volcano, Alaska and Mt. Baker, Washington: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 21.
Report on the 2006 Boulder Glacier ice-rock avalanche
Fountain, A., Jackson, K., Basagic, H.J. and Sitts, D., 2007, A century of glacier change on Mount Baker, Washington: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 67.
Advance and retreat of Baker glaciers
Ryane, C., Osborn, G., Scott, K., Menounos, B., Davis, P.T., Reidel, J., Clague, J. and Koch, J., 2007, The use of tephra to reinterpret early Holocene glacial history at Mount Baker: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4.
Using SC tephra to show no early Holocene glacial advance
Kovanen, D. and Slaymaker, O., 2005, Fluctuations of the Deming Glacier and theoretical equilibrium line altitudes during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene on Mount Baker, Washington, USA: Boreas, vol.34, no.2, pp.157-175
Kovanen, D., 2003, Decadal variability in climate and glacier fluctuations on Mt. Baker, Washington, U.S.A. Geografiska Annaler: Series A 85: 43–55.
ABSTRACT: Climate variability in the Pacific basin has been attributed to large-scale oceanic-atmospheric modulations (e.g. the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)) that dominate the weather of adjacent land areas. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and north Pacific index are thought to be indicators of modulations and events in the northeast Pacific. In this study we find that variations in the PDO are reflected in the terminus position of glaciers on Mt Baker, in the northern Cascade Range, Washington. The initiation of retreat and advance phases of six glaciers persisted for 20-30 years, which relate to PDO regime shifts. The result of this study agrees with previous studies that link glacier mass balance changes to local precipitation anomalies and processes in the Pacific. However, the use of mass balance changes and glacier terminus variation for identification of regime shifts in climate indices is complicated by the lack of standardized measuring techniques, differing response times of individual glaciers to changes in climate, geographic and morphometric factors, and the use of assorted climate indices with different domains and time-scales in the Pacific for comparison.
Bach, A., 2002, Snowshed contributions to the Nooksack River watershed, North Cascades Range, Washington. Geographical Review, 92 (2):192-213.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1931-0846.2002.tb00004.x/abstract ABSTRACT. Meltwater contributes to watershed hydrology by increasing summer discharge, delaying the peak spring runoff, and decreasing variability in runoff. High-elevation snowshed meltwater, including glacier-derived input, provides an estimated 26.9 percent of summer streamflow (ranging annually from 16 to 40 percent) in the Nooksack River Basin above the town of Deming, Washington, in the North Cascades Range. The Nooksack is a major spawning river for salmon and once was important for commercial, recreational, and tribal fishing, and in the past its flow met the demands of both human and aquatic ecosystems. But the river is already legally overallocated, and demand is rising in response to the rapidly growing human population. Variability in snowshed contributions to the watershed is considerable but has increased from an average of 25.2 percent in the 1940s to an average of 30.8 percent in the 1990s. Overall stream discharge shows no significant increase, suggesting that the glaciers are melting, and/or precipitation levels (or other hydrologic factors) are decreasing at about the same rate. If glaciers continue to recede, they may disappear permanently from the Cascades. If that occurs, their summer contribution to surface-water supplies will cease, and water-management policies will need drastic revision.
Easterbrook, D. and Kovanen, D., 2000, Cyclical oscillations of Mt Baker glaciers in response to climatic changes and their correlation with periodic oceanographic changes in the northeast Pacific Ocean: Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America, vol.32, no.7, pp.17
Photogrammetry of Baker glacier fluctuations
Thomas, P., Easterbrook, D. and Clark, P.U., 2000, Thomas, P. A, Easterbrook, D. J., Clark, P. U., 2000, Early Holocene glaciation on Mount Baker, Washington State, USA: Quaternary Science Reviews, vol.19, no.11, pp.1043-1046.
Use of tephra to define possible early Holocene glacial advance
Kovanen, D., 1996, Extensive late-Pleistocene alpine glaciation in the Nooksack River Valley, North Cascades, Washington: (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 186 p.
Interpreted Younger Dryas glaciation in Baker valleys
Pelto, M., 1996, Net Balance of North Cascade Glaciers, 1984-94. Journal of Glaciology, 140, 3-9.
Includes Rainbow Glacier, Mount Baker. FULL PAPER ONLINE: http://www.nichols.edu/departments/glacier/15-Cascades84-94.pdf
Harper, J., 1993, Glacier terminus fluctuations on Mount Baker, Washington, U.S.A., 1940-1990, and climatic variations: Arctic and Alpine Research, v. 25, n. 4, p. 332-340.
Ice thickness data and glacial changes ONLINE: http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1551916?uid=3739960&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21103157676287
Pelto, M.S., 1993, Current behavior of glaciers in the North Cascades: Washington Geology v. 21 n. 2
Mass balance study, includes several Mount Baker glaciers
Pelto, M.S., 1988, The annual balance of North Cascade, Washington Glaciers measured and predicted using an activity index method. Journal of Glaciology 34: 194–200.
Includes Rainbow Glacier on Baker. FULL PAPER ONLINE: http://www.igsoc.org/journal.old/34/117/igs_journal_vol34_issue117_pg194-199.pdf
Heikkinen, O., 1984, Dendrochronological evidence of variations of Coleman Glacier, Mount Baker, Washington, USA; Arctic and Alpine Research v. 16, n. 1, pp. 53-64
Moraine tree-ring ages from early 1500s to 1979. ABSTRACT: Coleman Glacier is situated on the ice-clad Mount Baker volcano in the Pacific Northwest of North America. It is fronted by several forested terminal moraines, minimum ages of which have been determined by tree-ring counts. Nine of the 150 conifers studied were trees damaged by glacial advances; others were the oldest trees found on the moraines themselves. The tree-ring patterns of the former set of conifers revealed the years when glacier readvances reached their maxima, whereas the number of tree rings in the latter group only provided minimum ages for moraine stabilization. Together with historical records, the tree-ring counts date moraines to the following years: 1978-79, ca. 1922, ca. 1908-12, 1886-87, ca. 1855-56, ca. 1823, ca. 1740, and the early 1500s. Excluding the last two dates, the ages date the maximal glacier readvances relatively closely. The moraine chronology over the past two centuries developed for Coleman Glacier has great similarity to chronologies on Mount Rainier, Washington, and in Scandinavia. Because of the short response time of Coleman Glacier to climatic changes, the obtained dates of glacial readvances are consistent with the climatic information available. ONLINE: http://instaar.colorado.edu/aaar/journal_issues/abstract.php?id=839
Frank, D. and Krimmel, R.M., 1980, Progress report on chemical monitoring of the subglacial stream draining Sherman Crater, Mount Baker, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.61, no.6, pp.69, 05 Feb 1980
Monitoring chloride chemical composition in Boulder Creek and Boulder Glacier
Fuller, S.R., 1980, Neoglaciation of Avalanche Gorge and the Middle Fork Nooksack River valley, Mt. Baker, Washington (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 68 p.
Rainbow Creek debris avalanche description; glaciation
Frank, D., 1976, Debris avalanches at Mount Baker Volcano, Washington: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Report: P 929, ERTS-1, a new window on our planet, pp.120-122.
Landsat-1 imaging of debris avalanches on Boulder Glacier
Nitsan, U., 1976, The effect of increased geothermal heat flux on the flow of Mount Baker Glaciers: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.89
Glacial geology and heat flux
Kiver, E.P., 1974, The summit firn caves of Mount Baker: International Glaciospeleological Survey Bulletin, no.3, pp. 5-85.
Description of ice caves at the base of the Sherman Crater glacier.
Burke, R., 1972, Neoglaciation of Boulder Valley, Mt Baker, Washington (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 47 p.
Early description of Boulder Creek assemblage; 14C dates; Boulder Glacier dendrochronology
Harrison, A.E., 1970, Fluctuations of Coleman Glacier, Mt. Baker, Washington, USA: Journal of Glaciology, v.9 n. 57 p. 393-396
ice thickness vs. advance/retreat, 1953-1968 ONLINE in full: http://www.igsoc.org/journal.old/9/57/igs_journal_vol09_issue057_pg393-396.pdf
Harrison, A.E., 1961, Fluctuations of the Coleman Glacier, Mount Baker, Washington: Journal of Geophysics Research v. 66 n.2 p. 649-650
Interim report on Coleman Glacier advance in 1950s. ABSTRACT: Attention has been focused on the Coleman Glacier at Mt. Baker because it began an advance in 1949 when world-wide retreat of glaciers was the expected behavior. A change in climate caused the Coleman Glacier, like most other glaciers in the Pacific Northwest, to grow in volume during the last decade. The advance was greatest between 1954 and 1955, when the Coleman tongue moved 325 feet down the canyon in a single season. The advance came to an abrupt halt in 1958. ONLINE: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/JZ066i002p00649/abstract
Harrison, A.E., 1961, Ice thickness variations at an advancing front, Coleman Glacier, Mt. Baker, Washington: Journal of Glaciology, v. 3 n. 30 p. 1168-1170
Hubley, R.C., 1957, Glaciers of Washington’s Cascades and Olympic Mountains: Their present activity and its relation to local climatic trends. Journal of Glaciology, 2(19):669-674.
ABSTRACT: Between 1953 and 1955, 73 glaciers in the Olympic and Cascade Mountains of Washington State have been investigated to determine their present activity. 50 of these glaciers are now advancing at rates from 3 to 100 m. or more per annum. Of the remaining 23, 22 glaciers either demonstrate clear evidence of increasing thickness, or have remained so heavily snow-covered at the end of the ablation season that it has not been possible to locate their limits. The present glacier growth, which appears to have started about 12 years ago. represents a radical change from conditions during the previous 20 years when glaciers of the Olympics and Cascades without exception were shrinking rapidly. An analysis of local climatic data demonstrates a present trend toward a cooler, wetter climate in western Washington. The ten year running mean annual temperature at Tatoosh Island off the Washington coast has decreased approximately 0'8° C. from the period 1934–1943 to the period 1945–1954. In the same interval of time the ten year running mean annual precipitation at Tatoosh has increased about 38 cm., and during the last decade has reached its highest value since the period 1898–1907.
Bengtson, K.B., 1956, Activity of the Coleman Glacier, Mt. Baker, Washington: Journal of Glaciology, v2
advance of the Coleman Glacier in early 1950s
Long, W.A., 1956, Present Growth and Advance of Boulder Glacier: Scientific Monthly, v. 83, July, p. 37-38
Boulder Glacier advance in early 1950s
Long, W.A., 1955, What's happening to our glaciers!: Scientific Monthly, v. 81, August p. 57-64
early glacial observations on Mount Baker and North Cascades
Long, W.A., 1953, Recession of Easton and Deming Glaciers: Scientific Monthly, v. 76, April p. 241-247